Immune Disorders and Inflammatory Diseases
Humans have evolved highly complex immune systems that are composed of specialized immune cells that protect the host from infection and damage. But an uncontrolled immune response such as chronic inflammation can itself inflict damage. And when the immune system is compromised by genetic mutation, individuals become more susceptible to diseases such as autoimmune disease.
Three of CeMMs Principal Investigators also perform clinical work in affiliation with the Medical University of Vienna. Sylvia Knapp and Christoph Binder are working on the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity and inflammatory diseases. Kaan Boztug is studying the mutations underlying immuno deficiency disorders.
Regulation of the inflammatory response
Inflammation is the first response of the innate immune system to infection or tissue damage and serves to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or tissue damage in order to eliminate pathogens and to repair damaged tissue. While our knowledge about acute inflammation is improving constantly, our understanding of the equally important process of resolution and tissue homeostasis is far less developed.
The innate immune system’s inflammatory response to invading pathogens is used to limit systemic spread of the infection and minimize tissue damage.
- Sylvia Knapp’s group is studying molecular modulators of the inflammatory response with a focus on tissue resident macrophages and their role in tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation.
Atherosclerosis and immunity
While acute inflammation is commonly beneficial, chronic or persistent inflammation can ultimately damage cells and tissues, and plays a causative role in several important human diseases, like atherosclerosis, which is the cause of heart attack and stroke.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by damage of vessel walls that is predominantly influenced by inflammation.
- Christoph Binder’s group studies the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis and the molecular mechanisms at play. They investigate the role of oxidation-specific epitopes, which are thought to drive the inflammatory response and promote disease progression, and the role of natural antibodies, which confer protection against atherosclerosis and may be harnessed as a new therapeutic strategy for treating this common disease.
Genomics approaches for studying immunodeficiency disorders
Patients with so-called immunodeficiency disorders inherit genetic mutations that cause defective immune systems with a reduced infection-fighting capacity. These disorders are also linked with autoimmunity, but the underlying mechanisms that cause these phenotypes are generally unclear.
- Kaan Boztug’s group analyses patients with immunodeficiency disorders using state-of-the-art genomic approaches available at CeMM including exome sequencing, in order to identify the underlying genetic mutations, and then go on to analyse their molecular functions.